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.NET qr barcode NT k=1 in Java Integrated pdf417 2d barcode in Java NT k=1

NT k=1 use none none generator torender none for nonec# qr code generation hk x k n + w n = b n Customer Bar Code NT k=1 hk 2 + w n where w n is WGN. Thus, we s ee an effective channel gain of h 2 . Transmit beamforming is an intuitively obvious strategy if the transmitter knows the channel.

It is well matched to cellular downlinks, such as the one shown in Figure 8.22, in which the base station transmitter may have a large number of antennas, but the number of eigenmodes may be small because (a) the power-angle profile from the base station s point of view is narrow, and (b) the mobile receiver may have only one or two antennas. Of course, there are many issues regarding the implementability and optimality of transmit beamforming strategies, but these are beyond the present scope.

Some references for further reading on this topic are provided in Section 8.8..

8.8 Further reading We mention a few among the m any recent books devoted to wireless communication: Goldsmith [87], Rappaport [88] and Stuber [89] provide broad descriptions of the field, but with somewhat different emphases. Tse and Viswanath [90] focus on the fundamentals of fading, interference, and MIMO channels. Other useful texts include Jakes [91] and Parsons [92].

From a Shannon theory point of view, there has been a significant effort in recent years at understanding the effect of channel time variations on capacity. For a time-varying channel, it is unrealistic to assume that the channel is. Wireless communication known a priori to the receiv er, hence channel estimation, explicit or implicit, must be part of the model for which capacity should be computed. Examples of Shannon theoretic characterization of noncoherent communication over time-varying channels include Marzetta and Hochwald [93], Lapidoth and Moser [94], and Etkin and Tse [95]. Turbo constructions and comparison with Shannon theoretic limits with constellation constraints are provided by Chen et al.

[82] and Jacobsen and Madhow [96]. There is a very large literature on OFDM, but a good starting point for getting more detail than in this chapter are the relevant chapters in [87] and [90]. For DS-CDMA with conventional reception, we recommend the book by Viterbi [97], which provides a description of the concepts underlying the CDMA-based digital cellular standards.

The Rappaport text [88] also provides detail on systems aspects of these standards. Properties of spreading sequences are discussed by Pursley and Sarwate [98]. Detailed error probability analyses for direct sequence CDMA with conventional reception are contained in [99, 100, 101].

An excellent treatment of multiuser detection is found in the text by Verdu [102]. Early papers on multiuser detection include Verdu [103, 104], Lupas and Verdu [105, 106], and Varanasi and Aazhang [107, 108]. Early papers on adaptive multiuser detection, or adaptive interference suppression, include Abdulrahman et al.

[109], Rapajic and Vucetic [110], Madhow and Honig [31], and Honig et al. [111]. The application of adaptive interference suppression techniques to timing acquisition is found in Madhow [112].

Finally, standard adaptive algorithms have difficulty keeping up with the time variations of the wireless mobile channel; see Madhow et al. [113], and the references therein, for variants of the linear MMSE criterion for handling such time variations. For the Laurent decomposition of CPM, the best reference is the original paper by Laurent [114].

An early example of the use of the Laurent approximation for MLSE reception for GMSK is given in [115]. Generalization of the Laurent decomposition to M-ary CPM is provided in a later paper by Mengali and Morelli [116]. An alternative decomposition of CPM is given in the paper by Rimoldi [117].

The book by Anderson et al. [118] provides a detailed treatment of several aspects of CPM. For space time communication, the original technical report by Telatar [119] (also published in journal form in [120]) is highly recommended reading, as is the original paper by Foschini [121].

There are a number of recent books focusing specifically on space time communication, including Paulraj et al. [122] and Jafarkhani [123]. A recent compilation edited by Bolcskei et al.

[124] is a useful resource, covering a broad range of topics. The book by Tse and Viswanath [90] contains a detailed treatment of fundamental tradeoffs in space time communication. Space time communication plays a key role in the emerging IEEE 802.

11n WLAN standard. Finally, while the channel for indoor space time communication is often well modeled as frequency nonselective (small delay spreads imply large coherence bandwidths.
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