OSI The Open Source Initiative in Software Attach Quick Response Code in Software OSI The Open Source Initiative

6.5 OSI The Open Source Initiative generate, create qr code none for software projects barcode The previous se QR Code 2d barcode for None ctions have introduced some basic concepts of intellectual property: copyright, derivative works, patents, software patents, contracts, licenses, and so on, as well as more narrowly focused but relevant issues like reverse engineering, obfuscation, trademark, and nondisclosure agreements. These ideas provide basic conceptual tools for understanding the purpose and features of the various free and open software licenses we consider next. The OSI is an organization established to foster a better relationship between the free software movement and business.

The OSI is a counterpoint to the FSF. It has de ned explicit standards for what it calls OSI-certi ed open source licenses and has a process for approving them. This section reviews the OSI.

6 Legal Issues in Open Source and considers i QR Code 2d barcode for None llustrative OSI-certi ed licenses. We address the de nitions and legal characteristics of these licenses, their historical context, implications of the license requirements, different reciprocity characteristics, GPL compatibility, and the important MPL license in particular..

6.5.1 Open Source Initiative and OSI-Certi ed Licenses The OSI (www.op Software qr codes, established by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens in 1998, is a nonpro t foundation, whose mission is to promote the use of open source software, particularly in commercial applications.

The creation of the organization was triggered by the perceived opportunity represented by Netscape s opening of its browser code. The FSF, founded in 1985 before the Internet revolution had represented a more activist or ideological position that advocated the eventual complete disappearance of proprietary software, an attitude that arguably fostered suspicion in the business community (see Rosen (2005) and the useful book review by Rosenberg (2005)). The OSI was founded to counter these commercial concerns about what free and open source software mean.

The pragmatic, nonideological approach of the OSI is re ected in the following sound bite from its Web site that describes in a nutshell what open source is all about:. Open source pro motes software reliability and quality by supporting independent peer review and rapid evolution of source code. To be OSI-certi ed, the software must be distributed under a license that guarantees the right to read, redistribute, modify, and use the software freely (http://www.opensource.


Even more stron QR-Code for None gly, the history document at the OSI site characterizes the motivation for the new organization and thus. We realized it was time to dump the confrontational attitude that has been associated with free software in the past and sell the idea strictly on the same pragmatic, business-case grounds that motivated Netscape (

php).. The very term QR Code ISO/IEC18004 for None open source that is now so universally recognized originated at this time, much later than the phrase free software promoted by the FSF. The term came about as a result of a meeting occasioned by the Netscape s opening of its Navigator code in 1998. It was coined by Chris Peterson and was motivated by both the ambiguity of the word free, which at least sounded like it meant free of charge, and the impression that the free software movement could be perceived as being anticommercial, even though this was not the intent of the FSF.

But the new description was also a proxy for a wider spectrum of issues in the open source community about the community s relation to the. 6.5 OSI The Open Source Initiative business world Software QR Code 2d barcode (see the site for a history of the organization and timelines). The establishment of the OSI formalized the other major branch of the free software movement, the one that had built its projects under the legal matrix provided by licenses like the BSD and MIT, which appeared more attractive for commercial applications.

The organization re ected the beliefs of prominent open source developers like Marshall McKusick of the BSD project, Jim Gettys of the X Window System, and Michael Tiemann, author of the GNU C++ compiler, later CTO of Red Hat and current OSI President. It is noteworthy that OSI cofounder Bruce Perens left the organization only a year after its founding, stating in a well-known e-mail (Perens, 1999a) that Open Source has de-emphasized the importance of the freedoms involved in Free Software. It s time for us to x that.

We must make it clear to the world that those freedoms are still important, and that software such as Linux would not be around without them. The OSI Foundation maintains a list of approved software licenses which it recognizes as consistent with the basic principles of open source development. Software distributed under any of these licenses can be labeled as OSI Certi ed Open Source Software.

All of the FSF s licenses satisfy these criteria a fortiori, but some of the OSI licenses do not satisfy the FSF requirements. In an analysis of open source license types, Ueda et al. (2004) found that about 30% of the OSI-certi ed licenses listed on the OSI site were not free per the FSF list, while conversely about 30% of the FSF licenses were not OSI certi ed, though in the latter case they could be OSI certi ed since the FSF conditions are tighter than the OSI criteria.

Licenses like the BSD are provided as templates in the sense that you only have to enter the appropriate owner, organization, and year to adapt the license to your own software. Typically to apply a license to your own software, you include the license in a separate le and then reference the le from each of your source les, as well as provide the identity of the copyright holder, the license name, and the copyright date. The OSI Web site lists the criteria or standards that determine whether a new license will be eligible to be described as OSI certi ed.

These criteria were derived from the so-called Debian Free Software Guidelines (see The reader may also refer to Perens (1999b) for a useful history by a leader of the Debian project who was also a founder of the OSI and the author/editor of the licensing criteria.

The process for having a new license OSI certi ed requires one to submit an explanatory document, created with the aid of a lawyer, explaining how your proposed license satis es the OSI criteria. This document must be e-mailed to the OSI via license-approval@opensource. org.

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