Social mobility in late antique gaul in .NET Generate Data Matrix in .NET Social mobility in late antique gaul

Social mobility in late antique gaul use .net vs 2010 data matrix ecc200 encoding torender gs1 datamatrix barcode on .net iReport Introduction carrying relics of Saint Satu Visual Studio .NET datamatrix 2d barcode rninus through the vicinity of Brioude simply expected to receive lodging at the cottage of a pauper.144 As the institutional church completed its mastery of Gallic society, no group seems to have been more forcefully manhandled than peasants.

Citydwelling ecclesiastics such as Caesarius preached for them to conform to urban Christian modes of behavior, with little apparent concern for the anxieties country folk might experience if made to abandon traditional survival habits.145 Clerics passed a steady stream of legislation forbidding peasants and slaves from tending to their agricultural duties on Sundays and saints days.146 In 585, King Guntram supported his kingdom s bishops by issuing an edict that forbade Sunday labor by force of secular law.

147 Hagiographers, Venantius Fortunatus and Gregory included, sought to convince agricultural laborers to believe that working during saints festivals would result in disabilities.148 For example, Gregory wrote how a peasant named Leodulfus from Bourges feared his newly mowed hay would get wet in a storm, so on Sunday morning he hitched his oxen and gathered the hay on a wagon.149 Immediately Leodulfus s feet felt as if on fire, but he misunderstood the divine warning sign.

Then, after mass, which presumably the pauper attended, Leodulfus returned to his task and was struck blind. After an entire year, he traveled to the festival of Saint Martin and regained his sight and the saint s forgiveness . In addition to using literary scare tactics to make peasants revere God and the saints on ecclesiastical terms, clerics also pressured the rural poor to abandon loyalties to traditional sacred spaces.

The case of Vulfolaic s convincing peasants to replace reverence for an abandoned pagan holy site with respect for the stylite has been mentioned. Similarly, but on a less imposing scale, a pauper from Embrun was making a huge profit. 144. Greg. Tur.

, GM 47, and s ee also Greg. Tur., GC 30.

145. Klingshirn, Caesarius of Arles: The Making of a Christian Community, 209 10. 146.

Ian Wood, Early Merovingian Devotion in Town and Country, in The Church in Town and Countryside, ed., Derek Baker (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), 61 65. 147.

Capitularia Merowingica 5. 148. Wood, Merovingian Kingdoms, 72, comments: It is not difficult to depict the early medieval Church as a power-house of psychological oppression.

149. Greg. Tur.

, VM 4.45. Jacques Le Goff, Time, Work and Culture in the Middle Ages, 94, claimed he could find no name for a peasant in any early medieval literature.

. free and Servile rankS by selling from his garden ma gical pears that could heal any illness.150 Upon learning about this, local ecclesiastics realized that the martyrs Nazarius and Celsus had been buried beneath that very arbor. When the pauper refused to allow clerics to cut down the pear tree, they waited until the owner was absent, felled the tree, and then erected a church on the spot.

This episode parallels Vulfolaic s story in that the would-be recluse, like the magic pear salesman, was a victim of a clerical deception that resulted in the negation of the victim s ability to act in a personally fulfilling and socially advantageous way. Just as deacon Vulfolaic obeyed his bishop and returned to his monastery, similarly did the pauper subsequently enter the church . Gregory explained, The poor man was distinguished by such faith that eventually he deserved to become a cleric for this cathedral .

151 Here it is interesting that the offending clergy apparently felt compelled to compensate, or placate, the pauper by ushering him into a conventional clerical position. Indeed, however uncommon, it was not impossible for a pauper to achieve a position of distinction in the church. One poor man who attained the priesthood was Riculf of Tours, about whom Gregory wrote: For this man was called forth from the paupers under Bishop Eufronius and was ordained archdeacon.

152 Many more humble Gauls would have gained entr e to the church not through the clergy but by becoming monks.. 150. Greg. Tur.

, GM 46. 151. gs1 datamatrix barcode for .

NET Greg. Tur., GM 46 (MGH, SRM 1.

2, 70): Tantaque pauper ille fide praelatus est, ut sacerdotium in hac ecclesia deinceps promereretur. Trans. by Raymond Van Dam, Gregory of Tours, Glory of the Martyrs, TTH 4 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1988), 70.

This anecdote is fraught with problems, not the least of which is the fact that Nazarius and Celsus were martyred and buried at Milan in Italy, not Embrun in Gaul; idem, 70, n. 54. If as May Vieillard-Troiekouroff, Les monuments religieux de la Gaule d apr s les oeuvres de Gr goire de Tours (Paris: Librairie Honor Champion, 1976), 117 18, suspected, Gregory has misread a passio of Nazarius and Celsus and the church in question actually was at Milan, this still would not negate the impression that Gregory leaves that it was not rare for a pauper to become a cleric.

152. Greg. Tur.

, Hist. 5.49 (MGH, SRM 1.

1, 262): Nam hic sub Eufronio episcopo de pauperibus provocatus, archidiaconus ordinatus est. As Gregory intimated, an advantage that likely facilitated Riculf s rise into the high clergy was the fact that he and Chilperic s son Clovis were fast friends. Fredegar provides the tale of another poor man turned high cleric.

He explains how a pauper aided Queen Brunhild when she had to flee the Austrasian court in 599. Once the queen was secure with her grandson Theuderic II in Burgundy, she presented the pauper with the bishopric of Auxerre; Fredegar, Chron. 4.

19. While this episode is unlikely, it cannot be entirely discounted..

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