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Speaking like a state: language planning in .NET Creation DataMatrix in .NET Speaking like a state: language planning

Speaking like a state: language planning use visual .net datamatrix implement topaint data matrix 2d barcode for .net iPad administrative terr Visual Studio .NET Data Matrix ECC200 itories produce new subnationalisms From the perspective of the center, the answer appears to be broadly no. Yet if we ask this same question from another vantage point, that of speakers of a minority language within the linguistically-demarcated states, we do find that the majoritarian language hegemony Patel, Sitaramaya, and Nehru worried about has come to pass.

Two points should be noted in this regard. First, for minority language speakers within states using Dua s example of Dakkani speakers in Mysore the required language repertoire can be as high as five languages (Dakkani, high Urdu, Kannada, Hindi, English).43 This burden is greater than the native Hindi speaker s ability to get by with studying only Hindi and English.

Yet this appears not to be a significant source of conflict, and in any event high levels of multilingualism have long characterized the South Asian region. But the second point, perhaps more apposite for our purposes, lies in the way that new relationships of linguistic categories have indeed created new minorities and new majorities with unequal relations of power. After the major states reorganization in 1956, individual states in India passed their own state-level laws to promote and develop various official languages of state; obviously, given that each state does not contain a homogeneous population, some citizens will de facto be speakers of minority languages.

The creation of these new minorities has involved fractal recursivity, in which the oppositions at one level of linguistic salience English and Hindi, for example find themselves recursively projected onto progressively smaller levels as well.44 So the formal symmetry of dominant::subordinate opposition of English and Hindi finds itself again projected onto pairs in the following way: English::Hindi Hindi::Kannada Kannada::Urdu.45 Or English::Hindi Hindi::Gujarati Gujarati::Kacchhi (and/or Gujarati::Urdu::Kachhi).

These iterated oppositions can be identified throughout the country; their existence is at present no cause for alarm, but observers interested in a more fine-grained analysis of language and polity certainly should be cognizant of the pattern, precisely because the recursive nature of these oppositional pairs suggests that whatever the dimensions of legal. Engineer, Bangalor e Violence: Linguistic or Communal Economic and Political Weekly, October 29, 1994; Janaki Nair, Kannada and Politics of State Protection, Economic and Political Weekly, October 29, 1994. Hans Raj Dua, Language Use, Attitudes and Identity Among Linguistic Minorities, Vol. 8, CIIL Sociolinguistics Series (Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1986).

See also Laitin, Language Policy and Strategy, 415 16, n2. See Gal, Bartok s Funeral, 443 7; Irvine and Gal, Language Ideology and Linguistic Difference, 62 5. See Nair, Kannada and Politics of State Protection.

. Speaking Like a State recognition for lan guage regimes at local levels, patterns of dominance in some form or another will remain a feature . The Indian nation, its literatures, and the state Many overviews of language policy overlook a crucial feature: how the state creates policies that affect literary production. A great portion of 4 examined efforts to forge a Punjabi literature in Pakistan as a means of redressing longstanding state biases against the language, and this book is driven by the conviction that notions of self and community identity cannot be understood without reference to the cultural products that communities lay claim to.

We have seen how the postIndependence struggles in India over administrative boundaries and national languages created small subnational states, in which a regional language could serve as the language of state. This narrative provides insights into governmentality as it affects education, electoral processes, and official institutions of the state. But what about cultural production Given India s enormous lingustic diversity, and its many literary traditions with long histories, the question of literary and cultural production would appear important.

Intriguingly, this multilayered multilingual state project has involved literature and cultural production from the start. The electronic media were very early repositories for new governmental language propagation efforts. Radio was long a domain of communication operated and administered by the state; the trajectory of the national language project can be seen in the post-Independence death of a project begun in the pre-Independence years to codify a Hindustani vocabulary for All-India Radio.

46 The composite Hindustani effort would end, to be replaced by separate Hindi and Urdu broadcasts. Regional nodes of AIR (renamed Akashvani, or voice from the sky in official Hindi), would create programming in regional languages, following the pattern of the linguistic provinces. Doordarshan, India s state television, follows a similar structure: national programs are created in Hindi and English, relayed throughout the country, with additional programs created at the state level in the various regional languages.

India s unique literary heritage was considered so critical for national development that a government resolution in 1954 created the Sahitya Akademi (India s National Academy of Letters). It began operation in. For an excellent hi ECC200 for .NET storical account of this project s demise, see David Lelyveld, The Fate of Hindustani: Colonial Knowledge and the Project of a National Language, in Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament, ed. Breckenridge and van der Veer (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993).

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