Additional reading in Software Printer barcode data matrix in Software Additional reading

Additional reading using software toget datamatrix with web,windows application QR Code Safty Leslie Cromwell, Fre data matrix barcodes for None d J. Weibell, and Erich A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 5, 6: Sections 6.

1 and 6.2. Michael Rudd, Basic Concepts of Cardiovascular Physiology, Hewlett-Packard, Waltham, MA, 1973, s 8 and 9.

R. F. Rushmer, Cardiovascular Dynamics, W.

B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1970.

Peter Strong, Biophysical Measurements, Tektronix, Beaverton, OR, 1970, s 2, 5, and Section 8.2..

Procedure 1. Electrocardiogram Software datamatrix 2d barcode (ECG) (demonstrated by a physician). Attach four electrod es to both wrists and ankles, as shown in Laboratory Figure 17.3. Record the ECG, leads I, II, and III, with the subject at rest and during light exercise (walking up and down two ights of stairs).

. I RA RA (white) LA (black) II RL RL (green) LL (red) LL III Laboratory Figure 17 .3 Limb lead placement for the electrocardiogram and the Einthoven triangle. RA = right arm, LA = left arm, RL = right leg, LL = left leg.

Lead II lies along the heart axis and is the most commonly displayed ECG signal.. Laboratory Exercise 17: The human heart Chest wall Microphone Instrumentation amplifier Digital oscilloscope Laboratory Figure 17 .4 Procedure for recording a phonocardiogram, using a large foam-covered dynamic headphone as a microphone..

Phonocardiogram Clean the ear pieces of the stethoscope with cotton and alcohol and listen to your heart sounds (pick a quiet place). Describe what you hear in terms of pitch, quality, duration, and repetition of sounds. Note that the heart sounds are loudest after an exhalation, when the heart is pressed against the chest wall.

Connect a dynamic microphone (one side of the headphones) to the digital oscilloscope, as shown in Laboratory Figure 17.4. Since the microphone output is on the order of 5 mV, you will need to use an instrumentation ampli er or differential op-amp circuit to increase the signal level.

Hold the microphone over your chest and record the phonocardiogram on the oscilloscope. For best results, sit or stand perfectly still while a laboratory partner triggers the digital oscilloscope. (Set the trigger source to line.

) The rst and second heart sounds should be visible. Do at rest and after light exercise. Use the HP VEE panel driver to capture and plot the data from the oscilloscope (see Appendix F Using the digital oscilloscope to record waveforms).

. Blood pressure Have the subject sit down next to a table so that the left arm can rest level with the heart. Make sure that the garment sleeve is not too tight. Circle the arm with the pressure cuff midway between the shoulder and elbow and fasten it by touching the Velcro surfaces together.

The cuff should be snug but not uncomfortable. Locate the brachial artery. It is above and slightly to the right of the bend in the elbow.

Feel for its pulse with the rst two ngers of the right hand. Measure and record the pulse rate. Note that the normal pulse variations in this artery produce audio frequencies that are in the 1-Hz range and very little in the 60-Hz 10-kHz range that can be heard by the human ear.

Tighten the screw valve and in ate the cuff to 150 mm Hg. Place the stethoscope head rmly over the brachial artery and listen with the stethoscope. You should hear.

Sensors and actuators Cuff pressure Arterial pressure 120 Pressure (mm Hg) Systolic pressure 100 80 Diastolic pressure 60 0 Time Laboratory Figure 17 Software Data Matrix .5 Pulsatile ow occurs when the cuff pressure is between the systolic and the diastolic pressures..

nothing. Open the sc rew valve a bit and de ate the cuff at a rate of 2 3 mm/s. Laboratory Figure 17.

5 shows the pulsing arterial pressure and the decreasing cuff pressure. As the pressure falls, sounds (called Korotkoff sounds) become audible and pass through the following ve phases: Phase I. Faint, clear tapping sounds that gradually increase in intensity, caused by the abrupt distention of the arterial wall as a jet of blood surges under the cuff.

These short duration pulses have higher harmonics that can be heard by the human ear. Phase II. A swishing quality is heard, due to turbulence of the jet of blood in the artery.

Phase III. The sounds become crisper and increase in intensity, as the volume of blood in the jet increases. Phase IV.

A distinct, abrupt muf ing of sound so that a soft blowing quality is heard. At this point, the blood ow in the artery is not interrupted, but is restricted enough to produce an audible turbulent ow. Phase V.

The point at which sound disappears completely because the cuff pressure is too low to restrict the ow of arterial blood. Systolic blood pressure The point in phase I where the initial tapping sound is heard for two consecutive beats. Diastolic blood pressure The point in phase IV where there is a distinct muf ing of sound.

Potential sources of error If the limb is thick in relation to the width of the cuff or if the cuff is loosely applied so that the rubber bag must be partially in ated before it exerts pressure on the tissues,.
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