D ISCUSSION in Software Build qr codes in Software D ISCUSSION

D ISCUSSION using software toaccess qr code jis x 0510 for web,windows application Microsoft Windows Official Website This chapter has intr Software QR-Code oduced a model of communication and language that will serve as the basis for the next chapter, which looks at text-to-speech conversion in detail, and the subsequent chapters, which explore the various problems that occur and the techniques that have been developed to solve them. We should stress that what we have presented here is very much a model; that is a useful engineering framework in which to formulate, test and design text-to-speech systems. In building this model, we have drawn from a number of elds, including semiotics, information theory, psychology, linguistics and language evolution.

These elds have overlapping spheres of subject matter, but unfortunately are often studied in isolation such that none really gives as complete and detailed a model of communication as we might wish for. Each of these separate disciplines is a vast eld in itself, so we have only touched on each area in the briefest possible way. Considering semiotics rst, we should look at the works of Ferdinand de Saussure, who is widely acknowledged to have invented the eld of semiotics and is considered by many as the rst modern linguist.

Saussure was the rst to emphasise the signi cance of the arbitrary nature of form and meaning in communication and proposed that the study of the relationship between the two should be the central topic in linguistics [391], [392]. The philosopher Charles Sanders Pierce also pioneered early work in semiotics and semantics, and gave us the framework of iconic and symbolic semiotics which is used here [350]. The second main area we draw from is communication theory or information theory, and from this we have the principles of encoding, decoding, channels, messages and signals.

The pioneering work in this eld was produced by Claude Shannon [400], who was originally interested in the problem of accurate transmission of information along telephone wires (he worked for the telephone company AT&T). It soon became clear that the implications of this work were much broader (Weaver [401]) and it has been widely. Communication and Language adopted as an approac Software qr-codes h to the analysis of signals arising from linguistic sources, such that this information theoretic approach is now dominant in speech recognition and many other elds. Saussure did not in general deal much with signals, and Shannon and Weaver did not deal much with meaning, but their work clearly intersects regarding the issue of form and message (the term form is used in linguistics and semiotics and message in information theory, but they both refer to the same thing.) The eld of linguistics is often described as the science of language, but in the main this eld focuses very much on just the meaning/form verbal part of language, as opposed to the entire process which includes participants, conversations, signals and so on.

Linguistics generally approaches language without reference to use; the idea is that a language is an entity and it can be studied independently of any purpose to which it is put3 . This approach is part tradition and part pragmatic; as linguistics can trace its lineage back to the philosophical musings of ancient Greek philosophers. In addition there is the practical justi cation that by isolating effects it makes them easier to study.

In modern times, the eld of linguistics has been dominated by Noam Chomsky[89], [90], [88], who in addition to many other innovations has championed the idea that the primary function of language is not communication at all, but rather forms the basis of the human mind; it evolved for this reason and its communicative purpose was a useful by product. Despite this mismatch between linguistics and our more practical needs, this eld does provide the basics of a signi cant chunk of the overall picture of human communication, including the models of phonetics, phonology, words, syntax and so on that are central to our problem. Many linguistics text books tend to be heavily skewed towards one of the many incompatible theories within the discipline, so care needs to be taken when reading any book on the subject.

A good introductory book which explains the hard issues , which is accessible to those with a scienti c background and which doesn t follow any particular theory is Lyons [290]. The study of human communication in terms of participants, conversations, background knowledge and so on is often performed outside the eld of mainstream linguistics by psychologists and philosophers. Good books on human conversation and language use include Clark [95] and Clark and Clark [96], Searle [395], Grice [184] and Power [361].

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