Non-linguistic content in Software Integrated Denso QR Bar Code in Software Non-linguistic content

3.1.6 Non-linguistic content generate, create qr code iso/iec18004 none for software projects ISO Standards Overview In our discussio QR Code JIS X 0510 for None n so far we have equated speech as being the signal used to communicate linguistic messages acoustically and writing as the signal used to communicate linguistic visually or over time. This in fact simpli es the picture too much because we can use our speaking/listening and reading/writing apparatus for types of communication which don t involve natural language. Just as we can use our vocal organs for whistling, burping, coughing, laughing and of course eating, breathing and kissing, we nd a similar story in writing, in that we can use writing for many other purposes than just to encode natural language.

This is a signi cant concern for us, in that we have to accurately analyse and decode text, and to do so we need to identify any non-linguistic content that is present. When considering nonlinguistic writing, it helps again to look at the evolution of writing. The key feature of writing is that it is more permanent than speech it can be used to record information.

Even the earliest forms of Egyptian and Sumerian are known to have recorded numerical information relating to quantities of grain, livestock and other accounting type information. Furthermore, there are several cultures who developed methods for recording and communicating accounting information without developing a system for encoding their language: the most famous of these is the Inca. Section 3.1. Speech and Writing quipu system, in which numbers could be stored and arithmetic performed. This ability for writing systems to encode non-linguistic information is therefore an ancient invention, and it continues today in printed mathematics, balance sheets, computer programs and so on.[64], [19], [6] Consider for a moment numbers and mathematics.

Without getting to far into the debate about what numbers and mathematics actually are, it is worth discussing a few basic points about these areas. Firstly, in most primitive cultures, there is only a very limited number system present in the language; one might nd a word for one, two and three, then a word for a few and a word for lots. More sophisticated number communication systems (as opposed to numbers themselves) are a cultural invention, such that in Western society, we think of numbers quite differently, and have developed a complex system for talking and describing them.

Most scienti cally and mathematically minded people believe that numbers and mathematics exist beyond our experience and that advancing mathematics is a process of discovery rather than invention. In other words, if we met an alien civilisation, we would nd that they had calculus too, and it would work in exactly the same way as ours. What is a cultural invention is our system of numerical and mathematical notation.

This is to some extent arbitrary; while we can all easily understand the mathematics of classical Greece, this is usually only after their notational systems have been translated into the modern system: Pythagoras certainly never wrote x2 + y2 = z2 . Today, we have a single commonly used mathematical framework, such that everyone knows that one number raised above another (e.g.

x2 ) indicates the power. The important point for our discussion is to realise that when we write x2 + y2 this is not encoding natural language; it is encoding mathematics. Now, it so happens that we can translate x2 + y2 into a language such as English and we would read this as something like x to the power of two plus y to the power of two .

It is vital to realise that x2 + y2 is not an abbreviated, or shorthand form of the English sentence that describes it. Furthermore, we can argue that while mathematics can be described as a (non-natural) language, in that it has symbols, a grammar, a semantics and so on; it is primarily expressed as a meaning and a written form only; the spoken form of mathematical expressions is derivative. We can see this from the ease at which we can write mathematics and the relative dif culties we can get in when trying to speak more complex expressions; we can also see this from the simple fact that every mathematically literate person in the western word knows what x2 + y2 means, can write this, but when speaking has to translate into words in their own language rst (e.


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