Margaret Urban Walker in .NET Printer Data Matrix barcode in .NET Margaret Urban Walker

Margaret Urban Walker use visual studio .net data matrix barcode integration togenerate 2d data matrix barcode on .net ISSN on women and men. gs1 datamatrix barcode for .NET It also demands observation and analysis of how gender creates differences between the experiences of men and women as victims, and how differences among women and among men mean differences in the impacts as well as the injuries they suffer.

95. I wish to thank R uth Rubio-Mar n for insightful editorial direction. Country studies commis sioned for the International Center for Transitional Justice project on gender and reparations were published in Rubio-Mar n s What Happened to the Women I have bene ted greatly from them and from discussion with the authors. Several meetings among authors of the country studies and contributors to the present volume shaped and enhanced this chapter in countless ways.

Special thanks to Pablo de Greiff, Director of the Research Unit at the ICTJ, and to the ICTJ staff.. The Gender of Reparations in Transitional Societies Ruth Rubio-Mar n Much has been wri Data Matrix ECC200 for .NET tten, over the last two decades, about the ways gender plays a role in generating, or at least shaping, the forms and the effects of political violence perpetrated under authoritarian regimes and during armed con ict. This literature describes how women suffer as a result of activities that target civilians.

It also testi es to the ways women are speci cally targeted because of their political agency, their engagement in peace processes, their involvement in communal forms of life, their roles as mothers or family members, and their ght for truth and justice for their loved ones. If some of the reasons for targeting women are gender speci c, so are some of the forms of violence women encounter as well as the short- and long-term effects of violence in their lives. Thus, women are more frequently subject to sexual and reproductive violence than men are.

They also experience forms of domestic enslavement more often. Finally, women bear the brunt of the consequences of violent actions that target their men, as can be attested to by the many single-headed households after con ict, the vivid expressions of the pain of the mothers of the disappeared, or the overrepresentation of women among the refugees or internally displaced populations in scenarios of con ict. If this is true for women, the gender-speci c reasons, forms, and effects of large-scale political violence that disparately impact on men remain to this day largely unexplored.

1 The recent trend to render women and their experiences of armed con ict and political repression visible has been echoed in UN Security Council. Of course, gende r need not refer to women alone. However, given present conditions, concerns about gender and gender sensitivity in this and most other contexts in which justice issues arise refer to the disparities and inequities in access, power, opportunities, and rights experienced by women across a wide spectrum of spheres. I will follow this well-established use of the term gender in this article, noting that gender analysis at some point will also have to include a much more serious and systematic treatment of how gender roles may also render men s access to some forms of reparation dif cult, something I only start to explore here.

. Ruth Rubio-Mar n Resolution 1325 o n Women, Peace and Security. This trend has not led to any systematic re ection on the bearing that a gendered analysis of violence should have when discussing reparations for victims of mass and systematic abuses of human rights.2 There may be, however, an incipient current in the practice of reparations that is likely to reverse this.

To mention some examples: the Reparations Program recommended in the Final Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR) in Timor-Leste, which was handed down to members of parliament on November 28, 2005, includes gender equity as one of ve guiding principles that inspires its overall conception;3 similarly, Morocco s Equity and Truth Commission (IER) made gender mainstreaming one of the priorities in its reparations policy;4 and nally, Colombia s recent Commission on Reparations and Reconciliation (CNRR) set up a speci c unit with the task of ensuring that all of the policies and recommendations of the Commission take into account the speci c needs of women and other marginalized groups.5 It has become a commonplace that one of the necessary elements to engender reparations is to include sexual violence in the list of crimes that are considered grave violations of human rights and, as such, deserve reparations. This entails departing from tradition, as most reparations efforts in the past have concentrated on violations of a fairly limited and traditionally conceived catalogue of civil and political rights including illegal detention, torture, summary execution, and disappearances.

In fact, the one single most organized and well-documented (though still largely unsuccessful) movement for reparations. Filling this gap barcode data matrix for .NET was one of the goals of the research project that led to this book. The rst results it generated were compiled in a previous book, which provides a gendered analysis of reparations discussions, initiatives, and programs in East Timor, Guatemala, Peru, South Africa, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

See Ruth Rubio-Mar n, ed., What Happened to the Women Gender and Reparations for Human Rights Violations (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2006) [What Happened hereafter]. The theory behind this piece and the empirical ground work provided in the country studies have nurtured each other in a relationship of dialectical enrichment for which I am greatly thankful.

See Galuh Wandita, Karen Campbell-Nelson, and Manuela Leong Pereira, Learning to Engender Reparations in Timor-Leste: Reaching Out to Female Victims, in What Happened 308. See the nal report of the Instance Equit et R conciliation (IER), available in Arabic, French, e e and Spanish at http://www.ier.

ma. (The author of this chapter provided technical advice to the IER on the gender dimensions of reparations.) Awareness of the importance of reparations for women is also increasing among women s rights global movements.

See, for example, the Brussels Call to Action adopted in June 2006 at the International Symposium on Sexual Violence in Con ict and Beyond (calling for reparations for victims of sexual violence), accessed at, and the Nairobi Declaration on Women s and Girls Right to a Remedy and Reparation, March 19 21, 2007, accessed at http://www. en. php.

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