ii. the gendered meanings of violence against women and the violence continuum in .NET Create 2d Data Matrix barcode in .NET ii. the gendered meanings of violence against women and the violence continuum

ii. the gendered meanings of violence against women and the violence continuum using .net toinclude data matrix barcodes in web,windows application iOS In the ligh DataMatrix for .NET t of this meaning of collective reparations, we can now ask whether it makes sense to consider women as their potential bene ciaries. Are women appropriately identi ed as a distinct category of victims to whom collective reparations are owed And, if so, what form of reparations would serve both.

This was re cognized in Yatama v. Nicaragua (June 2005), a case in which the Inter-American Court, having found that Nicaragua did not adopt the necessary measures to ensure the individual rights of the Yatama people to run for candidates in local elections without discrimination and that this generated collective harm, ordered collective reparations both monetary and nonmonetary..

Ruth Rubio-Mar n to correct (to right the wrong) and to transform (to build a more inclusive democratic order) From a structural perspective, leaving the group dimension of large-scale violence and political repression unaddressed, and presenting the violent period as a sum of separate violations of individual rights, is an insuf cient response. It misses a historic opportunity to spell out true guarantees of nonrepetition for victims, to engage in a conversation about what forms of institutional reform might be called for to accommodate minority or oppressed groups in the new democratic order, and to discuss which of the possible democratic models best ensures its inclusiveness. The promise of a common set of individual rights that will not be violated in the future is important for the recognition of victims as equal citizens, but it is also likely to leave unaddressed ingrained prejudices, misperceptions, and structural imbalances that were among the root causes of the group-speci c violence.

When the structural causes of the violence remain unaddressed, the real chances that in the new democracy those citizens will in fact enjoy equal rights and freedoms without sacri cing their identity and unique forms of cultural and communal life are reduced. Collective reparations, then, from this perspective, are measures speci cally targeted to capture and redress the group-based harm both to individual victims as well as the entire group they belong to. To explore this question, we need to consider in more depth the nature of the group-based harms that women suffer in war or under authoritarian regimes.

There is an increasingly rich literature on women under authoritarian regimes and women in war describing the manifold forms of victimization of women.12 Women, of course, suffer from operations that randomly target the civilian population. Like men, they are detained, imprisoned, extrajudicially executed, and subject to torture or inhuman and degrading treatment for ghting in resistance movements.

Women are also frequently punished for their family or communal links. They are harassed, sexually assaulted, and. See, for in barcode data matrix for .NET stance, Meredeth Turshen and Clotilde Twagiramariya, eds., What Women Do in Wartime: Gender and Con ict in Africa (London: Zed Books, 1998); Sheila Meintjes, Anu Pillay, and Meredeth Turshen, eds.

, The Aftermath: Women in Post-Con ict Transformation (London: Zed Books, 2001); Susie Jacobs, Ruth Jacobson, and Jennifer Marchbank, eds., State of Con ict: Gender, Violence and Resistance (London: Zed Books, 2000). See also Margaret Randolph Higonnet, Jane Jenson, Sonya Michel, and Margaret Collins Weitz, eds.

, Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987). On women under Apartheid, see Diana E. H.

Russel, Lives of Courage: Women for a New South Africa (New York: Basic Books, 1989). On women under the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile, see Marjorie Agosin, Scraps of Life: Chilean Women and the Pinochet Dictatorship, Cola Franzen (trans.) (Trenton, NJ: The Red Sea Press, 1987).

On women under fascism, see Victoria de Grazia, How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy 1922 1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992)..
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