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Cultural Change in Java Creation barcode 3/9 in Java Cultural Change

chapter use j2se ansi/aim code 39 integrated toassign barcode 3/9 for java ASP.NET Web Application Framework Cultural Change Culture itself is neither education nor law-making; it is an atmosphere and a heritage. H. L. Mencken, Minority Re j2ee Code 39 port, p.

360 (1956). Published by Alfred A. Knopf, a Division of Random House, Inc.

. 7.1 Introduction Recall the following defini 3 of 9 barcode for Java tion of culture introduced in 1; this definition is drawn from the field of psychology: Culture is a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore is taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.1 For this chapter, it is not important to settle on a precise definition of culture. This definition offers a sense of what the term may mean.

With this admittedly squashy baseline established, we have a point of departure for talking about how cultural change is a part of any attempt to change the way an organization develops software systems. Cultural change takes time and teamwork..

E. H. Schein, Organization al Culture, American Psychologist, vol.

45, no. 2 (February 1990), p. 111.

. 7 Cultural Change Redirecting the way that an organization develops software systems is part of a cultural change process.2 Getting software systems development processes on paper is a challenge. Changing the way people approach the software development can prove to be even more difficult.

When starting the journey toward cultural change, it is important to anticipate difficulties that may be encountered. Understanding the underlying dynamics goes a long way toward easing the transition. Change in the basic ways of perceiving, problem solving, and behavior requires adopting a new frame of reference.

New frameworks are frequently viewed with a cautious, hesitant, and questioning attitude. This behavior is commonly labeled as resistance. At the risk of oversimplification, this resistance operates on two levels visible and invisible.

3 At the visible level, people resist change; at the invisible level people resist loss. At the visible level, other people can observe the resistance; at the invisible level, other people cannot observe the losses, doubts, and fears (real or imagined) that reside in each individual (and within the group). Furthermore, at times, the individual who is resisting may not recognize the real source of his or her resistance.

When this multilevel aspect of resistance is not recognized, there is a tendency to project negative motives onto those who do not embrace a new proposal. This misunderstanding can lead to a nonproductive cycle by all parties. Pushing people to accept change does not work in the long term.

Pulling people with a vision of a better future works more effectively. To reach the stage where people are open to a new, shared vision requires working through the more basic emotional issues of fear, uncertainty, and loss. This working through requires patience, support, and understanding, not blame.

Endorsing a proposal for change will not occur until there is a feeling by key stakeholders that individual needs and concerns are understood and will be addressed. Figure 7 1 lists some losses, doubts, or fears that people may struggle with when they are faced with change. People commit to change for their own reasons, not for someone else s.

No amount of rational discussion builds commitment. Change is not embraced without the perception of personal gain and the opportunity to participate in shaping the outcome. When establishing (or fine-tuning) your organization s process for evolving your software systems development environment, it is important to allow individuals from all levels of the organization to have a say in the development practices.

. The discussion of the cultu j2ee barcode 3/9 ral change process in this chapter s Introduction section is adapted from a workshop entitled Managing Innovation, Strategic Performance Solutions Corporation, Silver Spring, MD. Used by permission of Gary Donaldson, President. 3 Resistance operates at many levels.

For the purposes of our discussion, we have simplified our treatment of resistance to two levels visible and invisible. This simplification is sufficient for the engineering issues addressed in this book..

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