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Management process in .NET Printing barcode code 128 in .NET Management process

13.2 Management process generate, create ansi/aim code 128 none for .net projects Oracle Reports many more people in t barcode code 128 for .NET he project preparation tasks. This will inevitably reduce productivity rather than improve it, and thus lengthen the project preparation stage, but, depending on circumstances, we may accept that penalty in return for the learning benefits.

Evolution and cycles Our development philosophy is one of cyclic development. For any project of significant size, we consider it impractical to determine at the outset exactly what order development should take and exactly what the focus of attention at any point in the development should be. With cyclic development we set out to build a regular succession of working functional subsets of the system.

This approach allows progress towards delivered functionality to be assessed, rather than progress against a theoretical plan. It allows the development team to respond rapidly to problems and opportunities that arise during the development process. The system evolves through cycles.

Cyclic development requires feedback from the appropriate parties at the end of each cycle. This feedback may necessitate rework to ensure the system best meets the needs of its users. There must be user representatives as part of the project team who can approve, from time to time, the direction being taken.

User representatives should review progress at least at the end of each cycle. The development of a software system is rarely finished . Instead, development stops when a system good enough for the purpose has been created.

This will be at the end of some cycle. The project is planned to last for a certain length of time, translated into a number of cycles. Development may stop before the end of this time because the sponsor doesn t wish to spend more money, but it should certainly stop at that time.

If, as a result of incorrect estimation or the extra effort required for rework, there is insufficient time to deliver all desired functions, some will have to be omitted. This should become clear well before the end of the planned duration. In nearly every case the system is still useful without some of its features and an additional project can, if required, be defined to add those features that are still desired.

In cyclic development, the project is divided into cycles of work, where each cycle advances the development activity. Each cycle has specified objectives and a fixed length. During the cycle, developers build software, using the results of the preceding cycle as their base.

At the end of the cycle the cycle products are integrated with the results of the previous cycle to produce a new system. During the cycle review this new system is approved as the base for the next cycle. Any work not completed at the end of a cycle must be re-scheduled for a later cycle.

The cycle products integrated into the new system need to be production quality; that is, they must meet standards, have the right documentation and have been tested to the prescribed level. They do not have to be perfect . The cycle review may identify errors in specification or construction that must be fixed during later cycles but need not prevent the software becoming an integrated part of the system.

If the cycle products are clearly unsuitable, either because their reliability is so poor that they would impede progress in the next cycle, or because they fail to address the requirements adequately, there must be no hesitation in discarding them.. The development process The overall scheme for cyclic development is shown in figure 13.3. project managers start here Produce initial workplan Specify objectives for first cycle Design S/W to meet objectives Define and revise objectives for other cycles Agree next cycle objectives Write code developers start here Review new system Integrate code and test Cycle Activities Figure 13.3 Cyclic development The formality with wh ich the cycle process is applied will depend on the size of the project, the experience of the developers and the organisation s culture. Cycle length Ideal cycle length depends on the tools being used and the stage of development of the project. Every cycle has fixed overheads: the time taken to agree objectives and to review results.

If the cycles are too short, these overheads become too large a proportion of the available development time and productivity suffers. If the cycles are too long, so much development may be done during a cycle that there is a reluctance to discard cycle products when they prove not to meet requirements and, if they are discarded, developer morale suffers. Projects using powerful development tools can have shorter cycles because more real development will be finished in a shorter time.

It may be wise to increase cycle length as the project proceeds. In the early cycles there will be many unknowns and the risk of producing unsuitable cycle products is higher. Our experience suggests that the minimum cycle length for any project involving more than two developers is two weeks.

When there are only two developers the process is invariably less formal and cycles may be of only a few days. For large projects the cycle length, particularly towards the end of a project, may be many months. A typical project plan for a nine-month project might be as shown in figure 13.

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