7.2 TESTING WEB APPLICATIONS AND WEB SERVICES using barcode implementation for software control to generate, create pdf 417 image in software applications. ISBN The use of barcode pdf417 for None the world wide Web to deploy software introduces a number of interesting issues for testers to solve. First, an essential difference is that of deployment web applications are deployed on a web server, and made available to any client on the Internet by sending requests through the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). The stateless nature of HTTP and the distributed client/server structure creates a unique environment for applications to exist.

Web applications are accessible from virtually anywhere in the world. This factor alone creates a myriad of issues. There is the potential for a variety of users, and they can have different geographic locations, demographics, time zones, disabilities, languages, etc.

Web applications are also very competitive, which imposes very high reliability requirements. Users expect web applications to work correctly every time, and if a web application does not, the users will look for a competing web application that does work. This makes testing crucial.

Web applications are also built in novel ways. First and foremost, they are composed of relatively small software components that are distributed (often across multiple computers), run concurrently, and share memory in novel ways, if at all. The HTTP is stateless, which means that each request/response interaction from client to server and back is independent of the other.

Therefore, any state in a web application must be explicitly managed by the software through technologies such as cookies, session objects, and of ine storage such as databases. Web applications are also created with a multitude of technologies, most fairly new. The technologies used include servlets, Java server pages, ASPs, C-sharp, Java, JavaBeans, XML, Javascript, Ajax, PHP, and many others.

Testing the individual components is not much different from testing traditional software, but we are not sure how to test the interactions among these multiple technologies. Moreover, Web applications are usually composed of large numbers of small components that are integrated in novel ways. The issues for testing can be divided into three broad categories: 1.

Testing static hyper text web sites 2. Testing dynamic web applications 3. Testing web services For this book, a web page contains HTML content that can be viewed in a single browser window.

A web page may be stored as a static HTML le, or it may be dynamically generated by software such as a Java Server Page, Servlet, or Active Server Page. A web site is a collection of web pages and associated software elements that are related semantically by content and syntactically through links and other control mechanisms. A static web page is unvarying and the same to all users, and is usually stored as an HTML le on the server.

A dynamic web page is created by a program on demand, and its contents and structure may be determined by previous inputs from the user, the state on the web server, and other inputs such as. Engineering Criteria for Technologies the locatio Software pdf417 n of the user, the user s browser, operating system, and even the time of day. A web application is a full software program that is deployed across the web. Users access web applications using HTTP requests and the user interface typically executes within a browser on the user s computer (HTML).

A test case for a web application is described as a sequence of interactions between components on clients and servers. That is, they are paths of transitions through the web application..

7.2.1 Testing Static Hyper Text Web Sites Early work Software barcode pdf417 in testing web sites focused on client-side validation and static serverside validation of links. An extensive listing of existing web test support tools is on a web site maintained by Hower.2 Available commercial and free tools include link checking tools, HTML validators, capture/playback tools, security test tools, and load and performance stress tools.

These are all static validation and measurement tools. Such testing looks for dead links, that is, links to URLs that are no longer valid, and evaluates the navigation structure to look for invalid paths among pages and shortcuts that users may want. A common way to model static web sites is as a graph, with web pages as nodes and links as edges.

The graph can be built by starting with an introductory page, then recursively performing a breadth- rst search of all links from that page. The resulting web site graph is then tested by traversing every edge in the graph (edge coverage)..

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