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From Moral Philosophy to Civil Philosophy in .NET Drawer 3 of 9 in .NET From Moral Philosophy to Civil Philosophy

From Moral Philosophy to Civil Philosophy using none todeploy none in asp.net web,windows application Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010 Overview The frontispiece none for none is, then, a symbolic representation of Hobbes s theory of social disorder, disorder as generated by conflict between civil and religious authorities. Hobbes tells us in the Six Lessons that though the competition of the papal and civil power be taken away now, yet the competition between the ecclesiastical and the civil power hath manifestly enough appeared very lately .65 And so, Hobbes concludes,.

When therefore th ese two powers oppose one another, the common-wealth cannot but be in great danger of civill warre, and dissolution. For the civill authority being more visible, and standing in the cleerer light of naturall reason cannot choose but draw in all times a very considerable part of the people: And the spirituall, though it stand in the darknesse of schoole distinctions, and hard words; yet because the fear of darknesse, and ghosts, is greater than other fears, cannot want a party sufficient to trouble, and sometimes to destroy a common-wealth.66.

The problem here none for none is not one of merely superstitious fears, of some irrational pneumatophobia. Our religious duties should trump the civil when in conflict .67 It is manifest enough , Hobbes writes, that when a man receiveth two contrary commands, and knows that one of them is God s, he ought to obey that, and not the other, though it be the command even of his lawfull soveraign , and if the [sovereign s] command be such as cannot be obeyed without being damned to eternall death, then it were madnesse to obey it .

In this light we can see that Hobbes s problem of social disorder cannot be solved by threatening civil punishment for disobedience. People simply aren t the bodily preservation-centered egoists needed to make that sort of threat motivationally reliable. Rather, they are religious believers who count salvation and the fulfillment of their duties to God as a part of their good, and who may embrace martyrdom for their faith, or resist their government on the ground of conscience .

They have interests that may transcend their interest in. 65 66 67. EW VII, 345. EW I none none II, 317; T 227. It is manifest enough , Hobbes writes, that when a man receiveth two contrary commands, and knows that one of them is God s, he ought to obey that, and not the other, though it be the command even of his lawfull soveraign , and if the [sovereign s] command be such as cannot be obeyed without being damned to eternall death, then it were madnesse to obey it (EW III, 585; T 403).

. The Unity of Practical Wisdom temporal bodily p none for none reservation, interests for the sake of which they may be willing to risk death, or even to embrace death. Hobbes says of the clergy that by the canonization of saints, and declaring who are martyrs, they assure their power, in that they induce simple men into an obstinacy against the laws and commands of their civill soveraigns even to death .68 That makes proper management of these transcendent interests indispensable to the maintenance of order.

And that means that the right of judging what doctrines are fit for peace and to be taught to the subjects, is . . .

inseparably annexed . . .

to the soveraign power civill. . .

. For . .

. men that are once possessed of an opinion that their obedience to the soveraign power will bee more hurtfull to them, than their disobedience, will disobey the laws, and thereby overthrow the commonwealth, and introduce confusion, and civill war .69 So the bodily preservation-centered conception of human nature the standard interpretation attributes to Hobbes is not in fact Hobbes s.

This snag is a serious problem for that interpretation, because if we pull on this thread we can watch the standard interpretation unravel in both directions. The bodily preservation-centered egoism was said to be derived from Hobbes s physical-scientific account of man as matter in motion, and together with it to form the account of man from which the political theory is derived. But that psychological conception is not derived from Hobbes s physical science.

Hobbes insists that in this naturall kingdome of God, there is no other way to know any thing, but by naturall reason; that is, from the principles of naturall science; which are so farre from teaching us any thing of Gods nature, as they cannot teach us our own nature, nor the nature of the smallest creature living .70 Preservation-centered egoism receives no support from Hobbes s natural science because that natural science cannot in practice ground any conception of human nature , nor through it a political philosophy. Could it do so in principle, at least If we think back to Hobbes s own chart of the sciences, we can see that civil philosophy , that is, the science of politics, is a distinct branch of philosophy and not a subfield.

68 69 70.
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